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دستگاه هاي تصوير برداري بوشبرگ



The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging
Second Edition

by Jerrold T. Bushberg




کتاب تصویربرداری بوشبرگ به بخش دانلود افزوده شد. این کتابی مرجع برای دستگاه های تصویر برداری محسوب می شود به زبانی ساده نوشته شده است.(فایل به دو تکه تقسیم شد)

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تهیه و تنظیم این کتاب را آقای نوید حسن پور از دانشگاه شهید بهشتی انجام داده است.

پسورد فایل : www.medrad.ir

دانلود کل کتاب (حجم 64 مگا بایت):

THE ESSENTlAL PHYSlCS OF MEDlCAL IMAGING SECOND EDITION‌ by Bushberg


چون حجم فایل بالاست به  دو بخش تقسیم شد:

دانلود بخش اول شامل فصول 1 الی 17  (حجم 41 مگابایت):

jerrold.t. bushberg (part1)


دانلود بخش دوم شامل فصول 18 الی آخر (حجم 23 مگابایت):

jerrold.t. bushberg (part2)


لیست سرفصل های کتاب:
Chapter 1: Introduction to Medical Imaging 3
1.1 The Modalities 4
1.2 Image Properties 13
Chapter 2: Radiation and the Atom 17
2.1 Radiation 17
2.2 Structure of the Atom 21
Chapter 3: Interaction of Radiation with Matter 31
3.1 Particle Interactions 31
3.2 X- and Gamma Ray Interactions 37
3.3 Attenuation of X- and Gamma Rays 45
3.4 Absorption of Energy from X- and Gamma Rays 52
3.5 Imparted Energy, Equivalent Dose, and Effective Dose 56
Chapter 4: Computers in Medical Imaging 61
4.1 Storage and Transfer of Data in Computers 61
4.2 Analog Data and Conversion between Analog and Digital Forms 66
4.3 Components and Operation of Computers 70
4.4 Performance of Computer Systems 78
4.5 Computer Software 79
4.6 Storage, Processing, and Display of Digital Images 82
Chapter 5: X-ray Production, X-ray Tubes, and Generators 97
5.1 Production of X-rays 97
5.2 X-ray Tubes 102
5.3 X-ray Tube Insert, Tube Housing, Filtration, and Collimation 113
5.4 X-ray Generator Function and Components 116
5.5 X-ray Generator Circuit Designs 124
5.6 Timing the X-ray Exposure in Radiography 132
5.7 Factors Affecting X-ray Emission 135
5.8 Power Ratings and Heat Loading 137
5.9 X-ray Exposure Rating Charts 140
Chapter 6: Screen-Film Radiography 145
6.1 Projection Radiography 145
6.2 Basic Geometric Principles 146
6.3 The Screen-Film Cassette 148
6.4 Characteristics of Screens 149
6.5 Characteristics of Film 157
6.6 The Screen-Film System 163
6.7 Contrast and Dose in Radiography 164
6.8 Scattered Radiation in Projection Radiography 166
Chapter 7: Film Processing 175
7.1 Film Exposure 175
7.2 The Film Processor 178
7.3 Processor Artifacts 181
7.4 Other Considerations 183
7.5 Laser Cameras 184
7.6 Dry Processing 184
7.7 Processor Quality Assurance 186
Chapter 8: Mammography 191
8.1 X-ray Tube Design 194
8.2 X-ray Generator and Phototimer System 204
8.3 Compression, Scattered Radiation, and Magnification 207
8.4 Screen-Film Cassettes and Film Processing 212
8.5 Ancillary Procedures 219
8.6 Radiation Dosimetry 222
8.7 Regulatory Requirements 224
Chapter 9: Fluoroscopy 231
9.1 Functionality 231
9.2 Fluoroscopic Imaging Chain Components 232
9.3 Peripheral Equipment 242
9.4 Fluoroscopy Modes of Operation 244
9.5 Automatic Brightness Control (ABC) 246
9.6 Image Quality 248
9.7 Fluoroscopy Suites 249
9.8 Radiation Dose 251
Chapter 10: Image Quality 255
10.1 Contrast 255
10.2 Spatial Resolution 263
10.3 Noise 273
10.4 Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) 283
10.5 Sampling and Aliasing in Digital Images 283
10.6 Contrast-Detail Curves 287
10.7 Receiver Operating Characteristics Curves 288
Chapter 11: Digital Radiography 293
11.1 Computed Radiography 293
11.2 Charged-Coupled Devices (CCDs) 297
11.3 Flat Panel Detectors 300
11.4 Digital Mammography 304
11.5 Digital versus Analog Processes 307
11.6 Implementation 307
11.7 Patient Dose Considerations 308
11.8 Hard Copy versus Soft Copy Display 308
11.9 Digital Image Processing 309
11.10 Contrast versus Spatial Resolution in Digital Imaging 315
Chapter 12: Adjuncts to Radiology 317
12.1 Geometric Tomography 317
12.2 Digital Tomosynthesis 320
12.3 Temporal Subtraction 321
12.4 Dual-Energy Subtraction 323
Chapter 13: Computed Tomography 327
13.1 Basic Principles 327
13.2 Geometry and Historical Development 331
13.3 Detectors and Detector Arrays 339
13.4 Details of Acquisition 342
13.5 Tomographic Reconstruction 346
13.6 Digital Image Display 358
13.7 Radiation Dose 362
13.8 Image Quality 367
13.9 Artifacts 369
Chapter 14: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 373
14.1 Magnetization Properties 373
14.2 Generation and Detection of the Magnetic Resonance Signal 381
14.3 Pulse Sequences 391
14.4 Spin Echo 391
14.5 Inversion Recovery 399
14.6 Gradient Recalled Echo 403
14.7 Signal from Flow 408
14.8 Perfusion and Diffusion Contrast 409
14.9 Magnetization Transfer Contrast 411
Chapter 15: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 415
15.1 Localization of the MR Signal 415
15.2 k-space Data Acquisition and Image Reconstruction 426
15.3 Three-Dimensional Fourier Transform Image Acquisition 438
15.4 Image Characteristics 439
15.5 Angiography and Magnetization Transfer Contrast 442
15.6 Artifacts 447
15.7 Instrumentation 458
15.8 Safety and Bioeffects 465
Chapter 16: Ultrasound 469
16.1 Characteristics of Sound 470
16.2 Interactions of Ultrasound with Matter 476
16.3 Transducers 483
16.4 Beam Properties 490
16.5 Image Data Acquisition 501
16.6 Two-Dimensional Image Display and Storage 510
16.7 Miscellaneous Issues 516
16.8 Image Quality and Artifacts 524
16.9 Doppler Ultrasound 531
16.10 System Performance and Quality Assurance 544
16.11 Acoustic Power and Bioeffects 548
Chapter 17: Computer Networks, PACS, and Teleradiology 555
17.1 Computer Networks 555
17.2 PACS and Teleradiology 565
Chapter 18: Radioactivity and Nuclear Transformation 589
18.1 Radionuclide Decay Terms and Relationships 589
18.2 Nuclear Transformation 593
Chapter 19: Radionuclide Production and Radiopharmaceuticals 603
19.1 Radionuclide Production 603
19.2 Radiopharmaceuticals 617
19.3 Regulatory Issues 624
Chapter 20: Radiation Detection and Measurement 627
20.1 Types of Detectors 627
20.2 Gas-Filled Detectors 632
20.3 Scintillation Detectors 636
20.4 Semiconductor Detectors 641
20.5 Pulse Height Spectroscopy 644
20.6 Non-Imaging Detector Applications Q54
20.7 Counting Statistics 661
Chapter 21: Nuclear Imaging-The Scintillation Camera 669
21.1 Planar Nuclear Imaging: The Anger Scintillation Camera 670
21.2 Computers in Nuclear Imaging 695
Chapter 22: Nuclear Imaging-Emission Tomography 703
22.1 Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) 704
22.2 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) 719
SECTION IV: RADIATION PROTECTION, DOSIMETRY, AND
BIOLOGY 737
Chapter 23: Radiation Protection 739
23.1 Sources of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation 739
23.2 Personnel Dosimetry 747
23.3 Radiation Detection Equipment in Radiation Safety 753
23.4 Radiation Protection and Exposure Control 755
23.5 Regulatory Agencies and Radiation Exposure Limits 788
Chapter 24: Radiation Dosimetry of the Patient 795
24.1 X-ray Dosimetry 800
24.2 Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry: The MIRD Method 805
Chapter 25: Radiation Biology 813
25.1 Interaction of Radiation with Tissue 814
25.2 Cellular Radiobiology 818
25.3 Response of Organ Systems to Radiation 827
25.4 Acute Radiation Syndrome 831
25.5 Radiation-Induced Carcinogenesis 838
25.6 Hereditary Effects of Radiation Exposure 851
25.7 Radiation Effects In Utero 853
Appendix A: Fundamental Principles of Physics 865
A.l Physical Laws, Quantities, and Units 865
A.2 Classical Physics 867
A.3 Electricity and Magnetism 868
Appendix B: Physical Constants, Preftxes, Geometry, Conversion Factors, and
Radiologic Data 883
B.l Physical Constants, PrefIxes, and Geometry 883
B.2 Conversion Factors 884
B.3 Radiological Data for Elements 1 through 100 885
Appendix C: Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Spectra Data Tables 887
C.1 Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Elements 887
C.2 Mass Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Compounds 889
C.3 Mass Energy Attenuation Coefficients for Selected Detector Compounds 890
C.4 Mammography Spectra: MolMo 891
C.5 Mammography Spectra: Mo/Rh 893
C.6 Mammography Spectra: Rh/Rh 895
C.7 General Diagnostic Spectra: W/Al 897
Appendix D: Radiopharmaceutical Characteristics and Dosimetry 899
0.1 Route of administration, localization, clinical utility, and other characteristics of
commonly used radiopharmaceuticals 900
0.2 Typical administered adult activity, highest organ dose, gonadal dose, and adult
effective dose for commonly used radiopharmaceuticals 908
0.3 Effective doses per unit activity administered to patients age 15, 10,5, and 1
year for commonly used diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals 910
0.4 Absorbed dose estimates to the embryolfetus per unit activity administered to
the mother for commonly used radio pharmaceuticals 911
Appendix E: Internet Resources 913
Subject Index 915







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